ECTS (European Credit Transfer System): The ECTS has been established to make the study achievements comparable. Parts or the total ECTS can be used to fulfill entry requirements in other programs (e.g. Ph. D. programs) or to get the acknowledgement that certain parts of another study programs has been completed already. One ECTS is usually counted as 25 hours of study work (online / offline studies, exams, self-study, project work etc.). It is at the discretion of each academic institution whether the ECTS from other programs are acknowledged, regardless of the legal status or ranking of the academic institution.